This document applies to CNAS's approval of photovoltaic modules and independent photovoltaic system testing laboratories.
The field of detection includes the photovoltaic performance and reliability tests of non-concentrating photovoltaic modules, concentrator photovoltaic modules, and stand-alone photovoltaic systems.
2 reference standards
CNAS-CL01 Testing and Calibration Laboratory Competency Criteria
3 Terms and Definitions
The terms and definitions established in CNAS-CL01 apply to this document.
4 Management requirements
4.2 Management System
4.3 File Control
4.4 Review of Requirements, Bids, and Contracts
4.5 Detection and Calibration of Subcontracting
4.6 Procurement of Services and Supplies
The laboratory shall establish a catalogue of qualified service providers and key materials, and clarify the qualifications, capability requirements or technical requirements of service providers, and keep records of their evaluation, confirmation and approval.
Note: The key consumable materials required for photovoltaic product testing include combustion test gas, wet leakage current test solution, and impulse test adhesive copper foil.
4.7 Service customers
4.9 Controls that do not meet inspection and/or calibration work
4.11 Corrective Action
4.12 Preventive measures
4.13 Record Control
188.8.131.52 The record control procedure shall include a description of the manner of control of the records that leave the fixed facility, site or detected in the relevant temporary or mobile facility.
When testing outdoors, the laboratory shall have a documented record form to record the outdoor test conditions specified in the standard that may affect the test results. When necessary, test reports should be accompanied by instructions or photos.
When it is necessary to adjust or replace the test site during the test, relevant instructions shall be provided and the record of test conditions after adjustment or replacement shall be added.
The original record should fully reflect the status of the tested product before and after the test.
184.108.40.206 The inspector shall confirm the detection data and information automatically generated by the detection system (including but not limited to the task number, detection time, etc.). It is acceptable to digitally sign data on automatic detection data, but there must be a corresponding procedure to ensure that it is not used at will.
4.14 Internal Audit
4.15 Management Review
5 Technical Requirements
The laboratory shall have the complete technical capabilities of at least one of the major test items in the photovoltaic product testing standards, and only those non-major items that are not allowed to apply for such standards. Among them, the maximum power measurement test (performance under standard test conditions) should be an essential laboratory test item.
Note: Appendix B to Appendix E lists the main items of the four typical standards for photovoltaic testing. Other standards can be implemented by reference.
5.2.1 All laboratory-operated special equipment and personnel engaged in testing shall understand the requirements of the standard, the measurement principle of the instrument, and be able to operate and record correctly according to the detection method. Key laboratory technicians (including authorized signatories) should have the theoretical basis and expertise of photovoltaic modules and stand-alone photovoltaic systems, and should be familiar with test standards and test methods.
Note: The relevant requirements for laboratory personnel can refer to 5.2.1 of CNAS-CL52.
5.3 Facilities and Environmental Conditions
5.3.1 The laboratory shall have the facilities and environmental conditions that meet the requirements of the standard and take monitoring measures to make it continue to be effective to prevent invalidation of the test results due to environmental reasons or adverse effects on the test results. Such measures include (but are not limited to):
The laboratory's detection and operation area should have sufficient illumination, and the general illumination of the inspection area should not be less than 250 lux.
For visual inspection of flat panel PV modules, the laboratory shall be equipped with lighting equipment according to the standard requirements (1000 lux) to ensure that visible defects of the PV modules are effectively observed.
Laboratories should be equipped with power supplies in accordance with general requirements. The power supply characteristics such as voltage rating, frequency rating, voltage stability, frequency stability, and harmonic distortion should meet the requirements of the test standard or ensure that the uncertainty of the test result is within the expected range.
For long-term environmental test projects, laboratories should have measures to ensure that their power supply can maintain the standard test period; if the test activity may be interrupted due to power outage, the laboratory should have documented instructions for the test data and results as well as The conclusion of the test is reasonable.
The test work power supply for the laboratory should be powered independently of the individual circuits of the air conditioning and lighting power supply.
c) Climate Environment:
The laboratory environment should meet these requirements when the detection method or the testing equipment itself requires the work environment, or when the change of the environmental weather conditions will affect the accuracy of the test results. If there is no special requirement for the standard, the laboratory shall not allow testing outside the specified environmental conditions, and then calculate the test results under standard conditions.
The wet leakage current test requires the temperature of the solution to be controlled at 22Â°CÂ±3Â°C. If the temperature of the solution does not have an independent temperature control system or measure, the laboratory should be able to control the relevant ambient temperature under the specified conditions to ensure the solution. The temperature meets the above requirements.
d) Outdoor venues:
The laboratory's outdoor test site conditions shall meet the site requirements and test conditions specified in the standard. The test site should have sufficient light and effectively control the factors that will affect the test results. Site grounds should normally be avoided, including surrounding walls or trees that produce strong reflections that have an effect on the test results. The venue should be empty and flat.
Note: Factors influencing the test results include, but are not limited to, installation methods, irradiance, wind speed, ambient temperature, ambient temperature around the sample, reflected radiation from the ground and surrounding objects, and emission radiation.
5.3.3 In order to ensure that the test results are not affected by the environmental regions and to ensure the personal safety of workers and accidents, the laboratory should carry out environmental safety isolation and take protective measures:
a) The gas cylinder used for the burning test shall be stored separately and isolated from the open flame in the test area;
b) The salt spray test and corrosion gas test should be isolated from other test sites or have sufficient ventilation;
c) Areas with potential explosion or radiation hazards should have safe isolation measures and give striking warning signs;
d) In the UV irradiation test, the laboratory should be equipped with a dedicated UV irradiation test box, and the observation window of the test box should have the function of UV radiation shielding. The laboratory shall be equipped with UV protective glasses for the testing personnel, and provide training for related personnel on the safety protection of UV light radiation;
e) High-voltage test shall provide rooms with sufficient safety protection according to voltage class or enclosed areas with sufficient safety distance. It shall also take effective high-voltage insulation protection for the inspection personnel and train relevant personnel for safety protection.
f) The impact crushing test shall be carried out in an independent area which does not interfere with other tests. There are measures to prevent the damage of the glass after the crushing of the test personnel, and the relevant personnel shall be trained in safety protection;
g) There should be adequate safety precautions for personnel and samples when handling the component sample to prevent damage to the sample or sharp edges of the sample causing unintentional injury to personnel.
5.4 Confirmation of Test and Calibration Methods and Methods
5.4.2 When the laboratory performs the maximum power measurement test, if the priority of the detection method used is different from the standard recommended sequence (indoor simulator method or outdoor natural light method), it should be able to prove that the detection conditions meet the requirements of the standard. , and provide corresponding inspection and control procedures to indicate that the indoor simulated sunlight detection results and the outdoor natural light detection conditions have excellent or practically acceptable consistency, including revisable results, with reproducible results. Sex.
220.127.116.11 When a low irradiance test is performed by a method not defined by standards, such as software, physical methods or sampling methods, the laboratory shall confirm the method and save the confirmation record.
18.104.22.168 The laboratory shall establish a procedure for assessing the uncertainty of measurement. The main uncertainty component shall be fully considered in the assessment method.
Note: Uncertainty evaluation of PV module maximum power measurement test must at least consider the spectral matching degree of the pulse light source simulator, light source non-uniformity, transient instability of the light source irradiance, electrical properties of the electronic load, and detection of ambient temperature, etc. Several aspects introduce the uncertainty.
22.214.171.124 refers to the use of mathematical statistics technology for data collection and statistical analysis testing, the laboratory should verify the accuracy and validity of statistical software.
5.5.1 Appendix A stipulates the basic requirements for the accuracy of general-purpose measuring instruments in photovoltaic product testing. Appendix B to Appendix E stipulate corresponding requirements for the equipment used in the typical four photovoltaic product test standards.
Note: When the standard version or update, the corresponding requirements of the new standard shall prevail.
5.5.2 The solar simulator used in the laboratory shall meet the grades specified in the standard. Different levels of simulators shall use different levels of standard solar cells or standard solar panels in the test.
Note: Unless the laboratory can demonstrate that the detection conditions (including but not limited to ambient temperature, solar irradiance, etc.) can be effectively controlled and stabilized under the conditions specified in the standard, photovoltaic modules (condensed molds) cannot be used with natural light. Except for the group, apply IV characteristics and maximum power measurement test for approval.
When a steady-state solar simulator is used to perform the maximum power measurement test under standard conditions, the temperature of the monitoring cell should be monitored according to the standard and can be controlled within the specified temperature conditions.
The temperature change rate and the cooling rate of the environmental test chamber for conducting the thermal cycle test and the wet freeze test of the photovoltaic modules shall meet the requirements specified in the standard under the actual load operating conditions.
The high-voltage tester conducting the PV module insulation test should be sufficient to cover the voltage range required by the standard and its determination current should be sufficiently sensitive.
Note: General high-voltage testers for electrical products generally fail to meet the requirements of photovoltaic testing standards.
For the concentrator photovoltaic module, when conducting the IV characteristic test outdoors, the test site should have a dual-axis solar tracking system that can accurately align the measured sample with the sunlight.
5.5.11 When using standard batteries (components) to modify the sunlight simulation test system to generate a set of correction factors, the laboratory should have procedures to ensure that its calibration data has been updated correctly and that the correction factors can be processed in the measurement data. Used correctly.
5.6 Measurement Traceability
126.96.36.199 The laboratory shall select the appropriate organization for the calibration of standard batteries (components) according to their own needs.
Note: The selection of calibration agency can refer to 4.3 of CNAS-CL06.
188.8.131.52 When using standard batteries (components) for calibration or quality control of inspection activities, the laboratory shall have management measures to ensure that the standard batteries (components) will not be damaged or deteriorate in performance, and if necessary, carry out periodic inspections to maintain their calibration. Confidence in the status.
184.108.40.206 Standard batteries (components) shall be clearly marked, protected from light, and be free from corrosive and harmful gases. The laboratory should have suitable handling tools and measures to ensure that it will not be subjected to mechanical vibrations, shocks, and strong electromagnetic fields that can cause its performance to deteriorate or even be damaged during handling.
5.8 Disposal of Testing and Calibration Items (Sample)
5.9 Quality Assurance of Test and Calibration Results
5.10 Results Report
5.10.1 It is permissible for laboratories to electronically issue simplified reports and digital signatures to internal customers, but it should be clear that the simplified report should contain at least the information it contains.
Laboratories that have limited testing standards or project capabilities should state the scope of the test results or conclusions in the test report.
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