Many studies have shown that GMOs can cause serious environmental and health hazards. Genetically modified organisms are exotic to nature, and the impact on nature is irreversible. Genetically modified crops, including genetically modified papaya, may also pose environmental hazards, including threats to biodiversity, the effects of non-target organisms, and the passage of genes. Drifting affects other species and super weeds in transgenic crops . Due to the nature of genetically modified crops, incidents such as pollution and illicit cultivation are not uncommon.
Illegal cultivation of genetically modified papaya:
The Ministry of Agriculture only approved commercial planting of genetically modified papaya in Guangdong Province. Therefore, the emergence of genetically modified papaya in Hainan Province has violated Article 19 of the "Regulations on the Management of Genetically Modified Organisms in Agriculture". The regulations are illegal cultivation.
Genetically modified papaya is not only illicitly cultivated, but it is very likely that it has already flowed into the food chain. Greenpeace learned that in communicating with local growers, these farms were supplied to major supermarket groups. Greenpeace also detected that the papayas sold in supermarkets are currently genetically modified papayas that are sold in supermarkets, and they do not have any logos. Consumers may have unknowingly eaten illicitly cultivated plants that risk health. Genetically modified papaya.
Prior to this, there have been cases of illegal importation and contamination of genetically modified papaya in China. In 2004, the Hong Kong regional government obtained some papaya seeds from an agricultural research institute in mainland China and distributed them to local farmers (including organic farmers) for planting. It was later discovered that these seeds were actually genetically modified papaya seeds. Greenpeace conducted further inspections and investigations on the incident and actively assisted local organic farmers in removing and isolating the genetically modified papaya and preventing other farmland from being contaminated. The incident affected local organic farming in Hong Kong. Moreover, since the Ministry of Agriculture had not yet approved the commercial cultivation of genetically modified papaya in 2004, it was illegal to grow genetically modified papaya anywhere in China.
Inspiration for GM rice:
Rice is the most important food crop in China. Since the long-term safety of genetically modified crops is inconclusive, no GM rice varieties have yet been approved for commercial planting. However, the illicit cultivation of GM rice has already occurred.
Greenpeace surveyed in 2005 found that Hubei Province illegally planted genetically modified rice, and that the transgenic rice seeds and rice that have not been approved for commercialization by the country have already flowed into the market, which may have a negative impact on the local environment and consumers. The survey found that the sale and cultivation of unapproved GM rice in various parts of Hubei Province has been planted for two years. The illegal GM rice is likely to come from the laboratory of the Huazhong Agricultural University for the development of genetically modified rice.
Afterwards, the Hubei Provincial Bureau of Agriculture promulgated the "Notice on Strengthening the Management of Crop Genetically Modified Species" in January 2006, prohibiting the illegal cultivation of unapproved crop genetically modified varieties, and prohibiting the sale of crops that have not been certified by Hubei Province or approved by the state but are suitable for cultivation. Excluding Hubei's crop genetically modified varieties.
In 2008, Greenpeace also found an illegal transgenic rice planting event in the laboratory flowing into the farmland in Hunan Province. The illegal cultivation of genetically modified rice in Hubei and Hunan Provinces indicates that even if GM crops have not been approved by the commercialization of the country, they may flow from the laboratory into the market and pollute farmland. After the pollution incident, the Ministry of Agriculture issued a notice requesting the detection of genetically modified components of crop varieties participating in the national-level validation production trials .
There have also been a number of GM crop contamination incidents in the world, such as Bayer's LL601 transgenic rice. LL601 pollution was first discovered by a rice trader in 2006 and subsequently discovered in various parts of the world. To date, pollution incidents of LL601 GM rice have continued to occur. The food and rice industries in many countries, including China, have been seriously affected. In the world caused huge losses.
In China, neither the planting area, area, or seed supply of papaya can compare with rice. There are 400 million mu of rice planting area in China, hundreds of millions of rice farmers, countless seed suppliers and rice products producers, and a large number of scientific research units that include genetically modified rice. Now that even genetically modified papayas, which are only fruits, cannot be effectively managed, the rice that is the staple food of 1.3 billion people will be more difficult to manage. Once a similar situation occurs, the consequences will be disastrous.
5. Conclusions and recommendations
A field survey conducted by Greenpeace found that the illicit cultivation of genetically modified papaya occurred in Hainan Province in China, and it is very likely that it has already flowed into the food chain.
Greenpeace suggested that the Ministry of Agriculture and other relevant departments immediately conduct a comprehensive investigation of the illegal cultivation of genetically modified papaya regions, and take effective measures to stop the production and sale of illegal genetically modified papaya; assess the harm to consumer health and the ecological environment; the source of pollution against genetically modified papaya And related responsible persons conduct a comprehensive investigation; to further improve safety management measures and regulations for genetically modified organisms and to increase monitoring efforts;
The pollution incident once again shows that the regulatory status of genetically modified crops is very difficult. There are loopholes in the management of genetically modified crops in China and there is no effective regulation of the cultivation of genetically modified crops. At present, China is considering the approval of commercial production of genetically modified rice. However, because the impact of genetically modified crops on the environment and health remains controversial, no country in the world has applied genetic modification technology to the production of staple foods. The pollution incident also warned how can we effectively manage the large-scale cultivation of genetically modified rice if even GM papaya that is only allowed to be planted in one province is not properly regulated? Once the problem of 1.3 billion rice staple food rice in China, the consequences will be very serious.
Rice is the staple food of China's 1.3 billion people. The issue of biosafety of genetically modified food crops is of great importance. Greenpeace also recommends that the Ministry of Agriculture and relevant agencies suspend the process of commercial planting of any genetically modified rice and invest more money in safe and productive production. The promotion of ecological agriculture.